Origins: The Generations of Noah: The Sons of Ham

Shalom, everyone! The following is a diagram of the generations of Noah (Noach), from his son Ham to his third great-grandson Sodom, based upon the accounts of the Book of Genesis (Bereshith) in the Tanakh, the Book of Jasher, and the Book of Jubilees. The descendants of Ham are known as “Hamites,” “Chamites” or “Hamitic” in the English language. Please click twice on the diagram to expand to full size:

The Generations of Noah: The Sons of Ham

Ham was the third and youngest son of Noah though he is mentioned second in the Book of Genesis. Like his older brother Shem, Ham is the progenitor of Afro-Asiatic peoples including the Akkadians (Cush), the Egyptians (Mizraim), Libyans (Phut), and a number of other North African and Asian peoples (Canaan). The Hamites migrated from Mesopotamia throughout the region known today as the Levant, southern Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, East Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and East Asia. The Hamites frequently intermarried with Shemites as they were always in close proximity to each other.

Ham married Ne’elatama’uk (Jubilees 7:14) daughter of Eliakim (Jasher 5:35), and had issue:

  • Four sons Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan (Genesis 10:6).

The original territory allotted to Ham was all of northern Africa from west of the Nile in present-day Egypt and Sudan to Mauritania on the Atlantic OceanHam was not allotted to sub-Saharan Africa, instead, this territory was allotted to Shem. This did not, however, stop Ham‘s descendants from settling in lands belonging to Shem:

  • Canaan rejected his original allotment territory in northwest Africa, preferring instead to settle in the land originally allotted to Shem east of the Mediterranean Sea and named it after himself, the Land of Canaan. This territory stretched from present-day Syria to GazaCanaan‘s descendants were later conquered and dispersed by a number of other HamiticSemitic and Japhetic peoples.
  • The mothers of Canaan‘s sons and many grandsons are unknown.
  • The descendants of Cush also settled in territories allotted to Shem, such as India and the Arabian Peninsula. Much of Africa south of the Sahara Desert would be uninhabited until after successive migrations of both Shemites and Hamites fleeing capture from the northern invading superpowers (Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans).

The Hamites today may be found primarily among diverse peoples including non-Arab North Africans, Nubians (Sudanese and southern Egyptians), Habeshas (Ethiopians and Eritreans), Punts (Somalis and Djiboutis), Nilotic peoples, Bantus, South Asians, Southeast AsiansEast Asians, Native Americans, and Austronesians. Please note that there is no “Curse of Ham.”  It was Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, who was cursed by Noah, not Ham nor the rest of Ham‘s posterity.

Son of Ham Descendants
Cush Cush was the progenitor of a number of peoples who settled in present-day Northeast Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, IraqSouth Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia. Cush had issue six sons Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabteca and Nimrod (Genesis 10:7-8):

  • Seba, also called Sabas, was the progenitor of the Sabeans, a people who inhabited southern Arabia in present-day Yemen. Seba is also said to be the ancestor of the Dravidian peoples, who settled the entire Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Maldives, Bhutan and Nepal) prior to successive invasions of by the Persians, the Greeks and the Mongols;
  • Havilah (Evilas/Evilath) was the progenitor of the Evileans, also called the Gaetuli by the Greeks. The land of Havilah is believed to be in present-day East Africa and Yemen. The Gaetuli also established settlements in Gaetulia, a large desert region south of the Atlas Mountains in northwest Africa
  • Sabtah was the progenitor of the Sabathens, also called Astaborans by the Greeks. The Astaborans inhabited a region around the Atbarah River encompassing present-day northwest Ethiopia and southeast Sudan;
  • Raamah, also called Ragma. He had issue:
    • Sheba, also called Sabas, most likely after his uncle, Seba, was an ancestor of the Sabeans. Sheba most likely established a Sabean colony in present-day Ethiopia and EritreaQueen Makeda, a/k/a the Queen of Sheba , a descendant of Sheba, visited the King Solomon in Jerusalem and inquired of his wisdom. The two had a son named Menelik David, who later became Emperor Menelik I. The Ethiopian royal family is descended from Emperor Menelik I;
    • Dedan, also called Judadas, was the progenitor of the Judadeans, a people who inhabited present-day western Ethiopia.
  • Sabteca was the progenitor of the Sabactens, a people who settled in south Arabia in present-day Yemen;
  • Nimrod, a/k/a “Amraphel” (Jasher 11:6) was the infamous hunter and king of Babylon, who established the cities of Babel, Erech (Uruk), Akkad and Calneh in the land of Shinar in Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq. The population in the land of Shinar were a fusion of Hamitic and Shemitic peoples as Shem and his descendants originally dwelt there also. Nimrod had issue:
    • One son Mardon (Jasher 7:47-48), and one daughter Azurad (Jubilees 8:7). Azurad later married Eber, a descendant of Shem, and had issue two sons, Peleg (Jubilees 8:8) and Joktan.
 Mizraim Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptians, BerbersCopts, and the Phillistines (Pelishtim) and a number of other related North African peoples. He had issue seven sons Lud, Anom, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathros, Chasloth and Capthor (Genesis 10:13-14):

  • Lud (Ludim) inhabited territory in northwest Africa in the land of the Moors (Morocco), near the Atlas Mountains on the Atlantic coast;
  • Anom (Anamim) settled west of Egypt, possibly in Libya;
  • Lehabim settled in Libya;
  • Naphtuhim settled in northern Egypt (Lower Egypt including the Nile Delta); 
  • Pathros (Pathrusim) settled in Upper Egypt (between Cush and Lower Egypt);
  • Chasloth (Casluhim) settled in Cyrenaica (eastern Libya). The Casluhim intermarried with the Pathrusim and produced five new peoples (Genesis 10:14Jasher 10:23):
    • Pelisthim (Philistines),
    • Azathim,
    • Gerarim,
    • Githim, and
    • Ekronim.
  • Capthor (Capthorim);
 Phut Phut, also called “Punt,” was the progenitor of the Libyans, BerbersTunisians, Somalis, and Djiboutis. Phut founded Libya in North Africa, however, some of his descendants migrated south to the Horn of Africa and established settled the “Land of Punt,” present-day Somalia and DjiboutiPhut had issue, four sons Gebul, Hadan, Benan, and Adan (Jasher 7:12):

  • Gebul,
  • Hadan,
  • Benan,
  • Adan.
 Canaan Canaan was the progenitor of many peoples including the CanaanitesPhoenicians, Carthaginians, East Asians, Southeast Asians, Austronesians, and Native Americans. He had issue eleven sons Sidon, Heth, Yevusi, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi, Zimodi and Chamothi (Genesis 10:15-18). The mothers of Canaan‘s sons and grandsons are unknown:

  • Sidon was a progenitor of the Phoenicians who established the cities of Sidon and Tyre in southern Lebanon. The Phoenicians established colonies throughout the eastern and southern coasts of the Mediterranean throughout the Levant and North Africa, including the city of Carthage in modern-day Tunisia. Some modern-day Lebanese, SyriansTunisians, Libyans and Cypriots are descendants of the Phoenicians and Carthaginians;
  • Heth (Hethites/Hittites) was the progenitor of the Hittites who settled in the territory north of the Land of Canaan between Lebanon and the Euphrates River (Joshua 1:4). The Biblical Hittites could possibly be the Hattians, a non-Semitic, non-Indo-European people who initially settled in north-central Anatolia (Turkey) during the Bronze Age. They called their land “Hattusa.” They were later displaced in Anatolia by an Indo-European people of a similar name, the Hittites who came much later. The Biblical Hittites merged with the Sinites and migrated east to East Asia. The ancient name for China, “Cathay/Khittae” is derived from the Hebrew word “Chitti” which means “Hittite”;
  • Yevusi (Jebusites) established the city of Jerusalem, and also dwelt in the mountains near Jerusalem;
  • Amori (Amorites) was the progenitor of a number of kingdoms in southern Mesopotamia, Syria and the Land of Canaan. Amori was also the progenitor of the Gibeonites who made a peace treaty with the Israelites to dwell in the unified kingdom of Israel; and also believed to the progenitor of the Moors who settled in northwest Africa;
  • Gergashi (Girgashites) dwelt by the western shores of the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret) in the Land of Canaan.  According to some sources, the Girgashites were also known in ancient Egyptian annals as the “Kirkash,” and in Hittite records as “Karkisa.” No further confirmed information is available on the descendants of the Girgashites.
  • Hivi (Hivites) settled primarily in a hilly region of Lebanon from Lebo-Hamath (Labweh) to Mount Hermon. Hivi was also the progenitor of the Horites who first settled the mountainous region of Seir (Jasher 10:28); The Hivites intermarried with a humanoid race of troglodytes or neanderthals who dwelt in the Land of  Canaan prior to the arrival of homo sapiens. Hivi son of Canaan, was the father of Hur who was the progenitor of the Horites, were said to be cave dwellers or cavemen. They intermarried with and were eventually driven out of Mount Seir by the Edomites. The Horites then migrated north into Anatolia (Turkey) and Europe where they intermarried with the sons of JaphethHivi was also the progenitor of the peoples of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim in the plains of the Land of Canaan;
  • Arkee (Arkites) was a progenitor of the Phoenicians  who settled the town of Arka in northern Lebanon;
  • Seni (Sinites) was the progenitor of East Asians, Southeast Asians, Austronesians, and Native Americans. The Sinites are believed to have first settled in the Sinai Peninsula in Pelusium. They migrated north merging with the Hittites and settled the Far East, becoming the Chinese, Mongols, Japanese, and Koreans. From the Far East, some Sinites crossed the Bering Strait into North America, becoming the Native American tribes who settled throughout North America, Central America and South America; others migrated south into Southeast Asia and Oceania and became the Austronesian peoples;
  • Arodi (Arvadites) was a progenitor of the Phoenicians who settled the island of Arados (present-day Arwad), an island in the Mediterranean off the coast of Syria;
  • Zimodi (Zemarites) was a progenitor of the Phoenicians who established the city of Sumur/Zemar on the coast of west Syria, between Arka and Arwad;
  • Chamothi (Hamathites) established the Kingdom of Hamath (present-day Hama) in west-central Syria.

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